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Noah's Ark Newsletter, part 10


Another Evidence Which Shouts the Truth

The remains of the ark are resting on a mountainside with a very large section of bedrock limestone extending through its midsection. Radar has confirmed that the limestone is bedrock and not a loose boulder which rolled down the hill- it is a part of the foundation rock. What explanation is there for the presence of this huge mass of rock extending into the ship?

In 1984, Ron and Orhan Baser found what they now are certain is a 120 by 40 foot section of the bottom of the ark, a mile or so above its present location.  For a moment, let's take our thoughts back to the time the water receded and the ark first rested on the earth.  At that time, the face of the earth would be extremely muddy. As the water slowly receded and the ark was gently lowered to the earth, it sank into the mud by increments. The very bottom kept extending deeper and deeper into this mud.

The evidence indicates that there was probably a bilge keel of some description on the bottom of the ship. A bilge keel is a fin-like projection extending downward from the center keel along the bottom, as is seen on sailboats.  This fin would have provided the ship resistance to sideways tilting, but it would have had another advantage.  As the ark slowly sank into the mud, this fin would have held the ship in an upright position after it was on the ground.  Then, when God "made a wind to pass over the earth," which caused the mud to dry out, the ship was held fast in an upright position.

Hopefully, we can scan this area with the radar to determine if a bilge keel is present, but for now this is only Ron's theory.  And even it there wasn't a bilge keel, the ark still would have sunk down into the mud and would be held fast.  When the lava carried the ship down the mountainside, this section of the hull remained in the earth breaking away in the process.  This left a very large hole in the bottom of the hull which David determined existed by his use of the MFG, and which Ron later found to exist with the radar scans. The fact that Dave was able to determine this with the MFG is tremendous evidence that the device is highly reliable despite the bad name it has received from those not familiar with it.

The Crash into the Limestone Outcropping

When the ark, sliding sideways down the mountainside, hit the large outcropping of limestone, it was literally impaled on the large rock.  It extended into the midsection of the ship and was the only thing which held the ark at its present location.  Since the decks had collapsed, the timbers which held the ribs in their upright position (the deck joists) were broken, and there was nothing to keep the sides from falling outward.  As the ark rotated into alignment with the direction of the lava flow (after becoming lodged on the rock), the ribs were thrown outward to some degree, around the midsection, especially on the starboard side.  This is a splaying effect.

The end that made the widest swing outward suffered the most outward collapse, and this is what gives the ship its appearance of being wider than it should be.  Keep in mind, however, that the ribs did not fall completely outward, but only splayed enough to give the ship a 138 foot width at the widest point, when the original width was 87 feet.  The biblical width of 50 cubits was measured when identifying the internal structures with radar such as the bulkheads within the formation.

The metal detector scans done in August of 1985, showed how the internal structure near the surface was literally wrapped around the rock, similar to a car that is wrapped around a telephone pole in an accident.  The pattern, revealed by metal detector scans, shows the broken structure members literally wrapped around the rock.

The Ballast- Pre Flood Slag

The strange material Ron and Orhan found scattered all over the bottom section of the ark, at the site further up the mountainside, proved to be identical to the unusual material found falling out in massive amounts from the hull on the northern end. This is ballast material and is what first attracted John Baumgardner's interest after Jim Irwin sent him the specimen Ron had given him from the site above the ark.  It contains a negligible amount of inorganic carbon, as contrasted with the petrified wood, but it contains an incredible amount of manganese dioxide (over 80%) and titanium.  One analysis revealed a 74% titanium content.  The importance of this specimen is that it displays attributes which indicate that it is slag, or the waste product of some type of metal alloy production.

What is Ballast?

Ballast is an absolute necessity for any ship.  It is any material of weight which is placed in the hull for purposes of stabilizing the ship, keeping it trim, etc.  For more information on this subject, look up shipbuilding in your encyclopedia.  You will find that it is not something that is optional for a ship, but is a necessity.  A ship the size of the ark would definitely have had ballast of some type.  The evidence at the ark shows that the builders of the ark used a most ingenious substance for their ballast.

Metal Alloy Production

To find a shipwreck on the side of a mountain with a massive amount of heavy substance falling out of its hull (material which is identical to slag), indicates perhaps that as the metal objects used in the ship construction were fashioned, the metal waste products were gathered and placed in the hull.  This makes an incredible amount of sense.  A ship of this size would have required a great deal of ballast, and the metal production was the perfect source.

But what makes us think there was metal production before the flood? Aside from the presence of a great deal of metal alloys at even intervals in the ship,  Manganese, which is found in extremely high concentrations in these ballast specimens, is used in the production of many alloys: "More than 95 percent of the manganese produced is used in the form of ferro alloys by the metal industries, chiefly for steel manufacture.... Produced without manganese, steel breaks up when hot-rolled or forged. Steels generally contain less than 1 percent manganese. Manganese steel (12-14 percent manganese) is used for very rugged service; it presents a hard, wear resistant, and self-renewing surface over a wrought unbreakable core. Manganese produced electrolytically is used mostly in steelmaking but also in the production of nonferrous alloys of copper, aluminum, magnesium and the nickel-base alloys and in the production of high purity chemicals. Practically all commercial alloys of aluminum and magnesium contain manganese to improve corrosion resistance and mechanical properties" Encyclopaedia Brittannica, 1985 ed., vol. vi, page 563, "manganese".

On one analysis of the ballast material, John Baumgardner wrote: "tailings of aluminum alloyed production" and signed his name and wrote "Los Alamos."  This particular specimen contained 31.44% manganese, 41.95% titanium, no iron, 11.33% silicon, and 7.19% aluminum, among other constituents.  This indicates that there was perhaps more than one type of alloy included in these various ballast specimens- and this one was the waste product of aluminum production.

"Aluminum-manganese alloys are popular for cooking utensils, heat exchangers, chemical equipment, storage tanks,... Adding major amounts (about 10 percent) of silicon to commercially pure aluminum yields an alloy with a relatively low melting point.... Because silicon imparts great fluidity to molten metal, this alloy is used in castings.  The addition of up to 5 percent magnesium yields an alloy with good tensile strength, weldability, hardness and corrosion resistance in marine atmospheres.... Adding both silicon and magnesium to aluminum produces alloys that are easily formed, machined, welded, and finished, have good resistance to corrosion, and are of medium strength." Ibid., vol. 1, page 644, under subject "Aluminum Products and Production"

The ballast materials under the electron microscope, display the appearance of slag and can therefore be identified with confidence. The exact type of metal production they were created from cannot be stated with precision. But because of the content of the specimens, which are consistent with present day processes of metal alloy production, it can be stated with confidence that these ARE remnants of slag. The large amount of manganese was expended as a waste product, although required in the production of the alloy, only a small percentage remained in the resulting product. The excess was spun off as slag, along with a small amount of the other elements used in the alloy production.


The discovery of titanium in such a high concentration is of special interest. The process by which titanium could be produced as a metal has only been known since 1936. "Although the element titanium had been known since its initial discovery in 1791 by William Gregor in England, and its identification in rutile in 1795 and in ilmenite in 1797, it was not until William Justin Kroll, a German refuge in the U.S., invented a magnesium-reduction process in 1936 that the production of metallic titanium became feasible. The process, which Kroll gave to the U.S. Bureau of Mines for development, remains in its original form or modifications thereof, the principle method used today for winning titanium metal from its ores." "Ibid., vol. 18, page 455, under subject heading "Titanium Products and Production."

The advantage of titanium as a metal is its tremendous strength and light weight, which is why today it is used in medical and space age technologies. The quantitative elemental analyses of the rivet-head Ron found in 1991, revealed 8.62% aluminum, 10.38% iron, 1.33% magnesium, and 2.7% sodium, as well as 1.92% titanium. Interestingly, the process for refining titanium involves SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM and sure enough, both were there!  "The high-purity titanium tetrachloride produced is reduced to metallic titanium by reaction with magnesium or sodium.  The Kroll process, which uses magnesium, and modifications that used sodium, as the reducing agents, are batch processes conducted in larger reactors." Ibid., p. 456.

The combined analyses of the fossilized rivet provide more than ample evidence that it was composed of an alloy which contained aluminum, iron and titanium; an alloy which would be extremely strong, lightweight and resistant to the corrosion of sea waters. Is all of this coincidence? The ballast contains elements which are completely consistent with that of aluminum, titanium and iron alloy productions. The rivet contains elements which are consistent with a very high-tech alloy.

For further evidence, "The major alloying elements that are added to titanium are aluminum, vanadium, molybdenum, manganese, iron and chromium." "Ibid." ) All three analyses of the rivet show iron, aluminum, and manganese, vanadium and chromium. Perhaps one or two of these things could be accepted as coincidence, but the entire picture is one that cannot be denied.

Hand-Wrought Iron

In June of 1985, when Ron, Dave Fasold and John Baumgardner all surveyed the site with metal detectors, Dave found a specimen which John stated on camera, displayed the appearance of wrought iron. Dave Fasold wrote about the results of John's later analyses of the iron specimens in his book, "The Ark of Noah", p. 255: "I hurriedly opened the first-class envelope labeled `Los Alamos National Laboratory.' It contained the semi-quantitative analysis of the iron samples were had recovered from the Ark. The stoichio-metric results were impressive, with the seven running from 60 percent through 91.84 percent FE2O3.  The highest reading was obtained from an angular bracket."

The angular bracket was the specimen John had identified as having the appearance of wrought iron. The large iron content of the petrified timbers again verifies the fact that the flowing water which effected the petrification process had traveled over a large amount of iron objects before it arrived at the timber being petrified. Where did this iron come from? Certainly not the surrounding terrain which displayed an only negligible iron content. The evidence indicates that probably various alloys were produced for use in different objects, depending on what properties were required. In fact, the evidence is TOO circumstantial to be interpreted any other way except that it shows conclusive proof of metal alloys used in the ark.

The "Manganese Nodules" Theory

One "learned scientist", proclaiming to be a Christian, rejects all the evidences found at the site. Why? Because after he was made aware of it, he continued to raise money to continue searching on Mt. Ararat, a project which was his favorite.  While he hasn't bothered to present any legitimate reasons refuting most of the evidence, (preferring to state simply that he has investigated it thoroughly three times), he DOES present an argument against some of the ballast material.  After all, these specimens are some of the most incredible and important evidences, and to speak out against them requires an alternate explanation.

He attacks the analysis of one particular specimen, the one which contains 84.14% manganese dioxide, stating simply that it is nothing but a "manganese nodule", something that is found all over the ocean floor and is therefore quite common.  Let's look at that claim.

First of all, this site isn't the ocean floor - it is 6,300 feet above it, and thousands of miles from the Pacific Ocean, which is where these nodules are commonly found. But let's not take that into consideration. Let's check into these nodules and see what characteristics they have. "...these manganese nodules contain as much as 2.5 percent copper, 2.0 percent nickel, 0.2 percent cobalt and 35 percent manganese. In some deposits, the content of cobalt and manganese is as high as 2.5 percent and 50 percent respectively. Such concentrations would be considered high-grade ores if found in land,..." "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1985 ed., vol. 13", page 503, under subject heading "Oceans and Seas".

The 50% manganese content, we have just read, is considered the highest percentage to be found in these nodules, as well as in land ores. The average is considered to be 35%. Yet, our analyses of these ballast specimens show 87%, 84% and 80%- far above what is found in these nodules. Also, the nodules contain cobalt and nickel, yet these are not present in the ballast specimens.  In addition, there is the size to be considered. The nodules are stated to be an average of about 4 centimeters (slightly less than 2 inches), yet some of THESE specimens are 10 inches in diameter and more. These factors, combined with the fact that the ballast specimens contain other elements NOT found in the manganese nodules is more than enough evidence to rule out that theory.

"I Don't See Any Petrified Wood?"

One would think that trained scientists would be able to recognize the fragments found scattered all the way around the ship as pieces of petrified wood- but they don't. Why? Because they are trained evolutionists- they are taught, and firmly believe, that all petrified wood displays growth rings. But without a belief in the Biblical account, they do not understand or believe that prior to the flood, (which they don't believe in) conditions were such that growth rings DID NOT OCCUR.

Genesis 2:5 "And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD GOD HAD NOT CAUSED IT TO RAIN UPON THE EARTH, and there was not a man to till the ground. 6 But THERE WENT UP A MIST FROM THE EARTH, AND WATERED THE WHOLE FACE OF THE GROUND."

This Scripture has just told us that there was no rain before the flood, which is probably one of the reasons that the world would not believe there was a Flood coming. The laws of nature which would be in effect in order to have no rain, but to have this "mist" which "watered the whole face of the earth" would include a very constant temperature. This temperature would not have varied over more than 10 or so degrees. This relatively small variation in temperature would not have been great enough to cause the water in the air to totally condense into raindrops, but would instead produce an effect similar to that found in a greenhouse or a terrarium.

Each day, in the cool of the evening, dew would appear on the ground. In the morning, this dew would evaporate as the temperature would rise.  Day after day, this cycle would continue, keeping a perfect balance of moisture both in the air and on the soil.

What Causes Growth Rings?

Growth rings in trees and other plants are caused by a variation in the water supply to the plant.  Annual rings today occur when the temperature drops and the sap in the tree fails to rise.  The leaves of the deciduous trees turn color and die, soon dropping off.  In the spring, the warmth releases the tree from its state of hibernation and the sap begins to flow again.  Even though there may be water in the ground, when the temperature drops, the tree does not continue its cycle until it is again spring.  Therefore, a ring results when the growth is temporarily halted.

Sometimes, weather conditions, such as a drought, can result in numerous rings in one season.  During a severe drought, the tree is deprived of its water supply and growth halts temporarily.  Then, a rain comes along and growth resumes during the same season- and here we have two rings in one year.  There is no way to determine the number of rings which belong to one year, so this method is not reliable in determining a tree's age. The petrified wood which contains rings, such as that found in Arizona, is post-flood.

Even the evolutionists admit the absence of growth rings in wood from what they call the "Carboniferous" period: "There was, as we have already said, secondary bark and wood, similar to that of modern trees but lacking the spring and winter rings which correspond to seasonal alternation of moisture and dryness. This is a further proof that the Carboniferous climate was fairly uniform." (Larousse Encyclopedia of the Earth, p. 369.)

The Blind CANNOT See the Truth

Before the flood, without an annual cessation of water supply and with a constant temperature, the trees grew at a uniform rate continually. No growth rings were formed. But try and tell this to an evolutionist scientist. He simply will not accept it and therefore will never recognize the petrified wood at Noah's Ark as being wood. So here we have a perfect example of a promise given in the Bible: Romans 1:28 "And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, GOD GAVE THEM OVER TO A REPROBATE MIND, to do those things which are not convenient."

When man rejects God and His Truth as HE told it through His Holy Word, God gives him over to Satan, that he will not be able to recognize truth. He will absolutely not accept it because through his rejection of Truth, he is blind. 2 Thessalonians 2:11 "And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: 12 That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness." Sadly, this is a fact, so don't ever expect the world at large to accept the evidence God has so mercifully provided.

For those who DO want the truth, even though they may have been taught lies, their eyes will be opened. John 8:32 "And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free." It would be foolish to expect a 4,300 year old wooden ship to remain intact today, unless it was buried in the hot, dry sands of Egypt, like Cheops' sun boat.  It could not be expected to survive at all in the extreme seasons present in the Ararat region, if it were left exposed to the elements all these years.  The wood would have long ago rotted and the metal fittings would have oxidized.

But protected in the lava flow, its presence was preserved in timbers turned to stone. Then, the simple outline of its shape was the only clue to its nature in the 1950s. At that time, no evidence was visible or understood.

In 1978, the small earthquake dropped the soil from around its sides, revealing on one side, empty holes where rib timbers had fragmented and fallen away after suffering "frost wedging."  On the other side, rib timbers which remained in place in the earth, but which are still fragmented, could be seen by the color difference between them and the surrounding soil.

Its length is exactly 300 royal Egyptian cubits, or 515 feet, the only cubit Moses would have known.  The "Hebrew" cubit was of varying lengths at different times, and wouldn't come into use for many years after Genesis was written.

In 1984, metal detectors revealed the presence of a regular pattern of metal readings both along the top and sides of the ark. In 1985, this pattern was plotted over the entire length of the ship, revealing the perfect shape of a ship.

In 1986 and 1987, radar scans showed internal structures which were completely consistent with the inside of a ship containing rooms and chambers, as well as three decks.

Analyses of specimens from the ark show various types of metals which display evidences of being wrought and alloyed. The hull is full of material which is precisely consistent with slag of very advanced metal production.  The technology for producing this type of metal wasn't known to modern man until 1936 and 1948.

It is in the mountains of Ararat, in a mountain configuration which matched the crescent-shape of Ron's experiment of placing "mountains" in a stream and floating a miniature boat past it, then watching the boat move within the crescent shape.

All coincidences? No- I'd stake MY LIFE on it.


Not too long ago, a precious Christian lady called and asked if she could bring her father over to visit us- she was concerned because he had trouble believing the biblical account.  It was his 85th birthday and he had come to spend it with his family. When he saw one of the traditional ark hunters on Christian TV claiming to have found the ark on Mt. Ararat, he got excited and told her if someone could prove the ark was real, he would be able to believe the Bible.

They came over and he was a perfectly delightful, educated and well traveled man. We spent the entire afternoon and evening sharing all the evidences with him. He wasn't the type to be snookered- he was in full possession of all his reasoning abilities. He returned to his home out of the state, and a few weeks later, we received a letter from him with a newspaper clipping.  It was a "letter to the editor" he had sent to his local paper.  He wrote about the difficulty he had in believing the Bible, his visit with us and the evidences he had seen with his own eyes.

But it was the last two lines that brought tears to my eyes: "I now know that the God of the Bible is the one true God and that all that is in the Bible is truth. So I can say that my 85th birthday was the greatest."  Just yesterday, we received a note from his daughter in which she tells of her conversation with him after he returned home. She asked him if he would pray with her and ask Jesus to come into his life.  His reply was that he "had already done that."  Thank you, Paul, for sending that article.  It makes it all worth while!

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